The Peak District is an upland area in central and northern England, mainly spanning Derbyshire, but also covering bits of Cheshire, Greater Manchester, Staffordshire and South and West Yorkshire. Most of the area became the first national park in the nation. It is conventionally split into the northern Dark Peak, where most of the moorland is found, and the southern White Peak, where most of the population lives. The park's controlling authority claims it to be the world's second most popular national park.
The White Peak is underlain with early Carboniferous limestone, which produces numerous caves - this is sometimes known as Karst topography. Under the Dark Peak lie shales and sandstones of the late Carboniferous millstone grit. Much of the Peak, and its adjacent areas, approximates to the structure of an eroded dome. The coal measures of the carboniferous lie just outside the district, especially on the eastern edge. Then, moving inwards, come the gritstone edges, the shales, and in the central region the limestone of the White Peak.
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