cash = paper and coin money
coins = metal money
notes (UK) / bills (US) = paper money
cheque (UK) / check (US) = basically, a note to a bank to pay a certain amount to a certain person or company
IOU / Note of Hand = given when a person doesn't have sufficient cash to meet a bill. Literally: 'I owe you'.
credit cards and debit cards = with credit cards the amount spent (or charged to the card) can be paid in instalments (i.e. the total sum can be divided into smaller amounts to be paid over time). With debit cards, however, the amount must be paid in full at the time of purchase.
capital = amount of total assets
reserves = money put aside for future use
funds = amount of money held or expected
currencies = the medium of exchange of countries
deposit = the money held by banks on behalf of their customers
monies = various forms of 'money'
loan = money borrowed from whatever source
debt = money owed to whatever source
subsidy = financial assistance given (sometimes) by governments to help some industries
salary = remuneration (money) paid monthly to professional workers (like solicitors (UK) / attorneys (US), doctors, etc.) Salary comes from the fact that Roman soldiers were paid part of their money in a monthly salt (sal) allowance.
wages = the weekly payment to manual workers
income = money from all sources
finance = matters concerning money
pension = money paid to the retired. Note that in English you cannot use this for any other type of payment, i.e. child support, ex-wives, etc.
maintenance = the money paid to support children and ex-wives
allowance = money paid by fathers to teenage children to allow them to buy things for themselves
rebate = a form of refund, often associated with tax adjustments
budget = a formal projection of income and spending
aid = financial assistance to less fortunate countries
fees = how self-employed / free-lance professionals receive their money. Salaries are fixed, whereas fees in a month can vary hugely.
instalment (UK) / installment (US) = a small monthly payment to reduce a larger debt
gift = money given freely as a favour to another person
donation = freely given money to a charity or political party
financial statement = a formal document showing a company's fiscal situation
shares (UK) / stocks (US) = issued by a company, and sold on the stock market, to raise cash
stake = a financial holding in a company. If you have shares in a company, then you have a stake in the company's future.
voucher = any form of pre-paid 'ticket' that allows you to buy something
bonds = issued by a company to raise cash. The bond is redeemable after a fixed period at a fixed rate of interest.
gilts (UK) / Treasury bills (US) = simply put, government bonds
US=American English GB=British English
We thank Francis Dixon-Clarke (from Sao Paulo, Brazil) for his contribution.
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