cash = paper and coin money
coins = metal money
notes (UK) / bills (US) = paper money
cheque (UK) / check (US) = basically, a note to a bank to pay a certain amount to a certain person or company
credit cards and debit cards = with credit cards the amount spent (or charged to the card) can be paid in instalments (i.e. the total sum can be divided into smaller amounts to be paid over time). With debit cards, however, the amount must be paid in full at the time of purchase.
IOU / Note of Hand = given when a person doesn't have sufficient cash to meet a bill. Literally: 'I owe you'.
capital = amount of total assets
reserves = money put aside for future use
funds = amount of money held or expected
deposit = the money held by banks on behalf of their customers
currencies = the medium of exchange of countries
monies = various forms of 'money'
finance = matters concerning money
loan = money borrowed from whatever source
debt = money owed to whatever source
subsidy = financial assistance given (sometimes) by governments to help some industries
salary = remuneration (money) paid monthly to professional workers (like solicitors (UK) / attorneys (US), doctors, etc.) Salary comes from the fact that Roman soldiers were paid part of their money in a monthly salt (sal) allowance.
wages = the weekly payment to manual workers
income = money from all sources
pension = money paid to the retired. Note that in English you cannot use this for any other type of payment, i.e. child support, ex-wives, etc.
maintenance = the money paid to support children and ex-wives
allowance = money paid by fathers to teenage children to allow them to buy things for themselves
rebate = a form of refund, often associated with tax adjustments
budget = a formal projection of income and spending
fees = how self-employed / free-lance professionals receive their money. Salaries are fixed, whereas fees in a month can vary hugely.
instalment (UK) / installment (US) = a small monthly payment to reduce a larger debt
financial statement = a formal document showing a company's fiscal situation
aid = financial assistance to less fortunate countries
gift = money given freely as a favour to another person
donation = freely given money to a charity or political party
voucher = any form of pre-paid 'ticket' that allows you to buy something
shares (UK) / stocks (US) = issued by a company, and sold on the stock market, to raise cash
stake = a financial holding in a company. If you have shares in a company, then you have a stake in the company's future.
bonds = issued by a company to raise cash. The bond is redeemable after a fixed period at a fixed rate of interest.
gilts (UK) / Treasury bills (US) = simply put, government bonds
US=American English UK=British English
We thank Francis Dixon-Clarke (from Sao Paulo, Brazil) for his contribution.
The shop offers a special price if the customer pays in cash.
La tienda ofrece un precio especial si el cliente paga en efectivo.
The little girl had a lot of coins inside her piggy bank.
La niñita tenía un montón de monedas dentro de su alcancía.
There is a shortage of capital for the construction of new subway lines.
Hay escasez de capital para la construcción de nuevas líneas de metro.
The bank statement shows deposits in the first column and withdrawals in the second one.
El resumen bancario muestra los depósitos en la primera columna y los retiros en la segunda.
Millions of dollars were given out in agricultural subsidies.
Millones de dólares fueron distribuídos en subsidios agrarios.
Many people find it hard to live on a basic state pension.
A muchas personas les resulta difícil vivir con una pensión estatal básica.
His father gives him a monthly allowance of $300.
Su padre le da una paga mensual de $300.
You may get a 20% rebate on your insurance, if your car is less than one year old.
Podrías recibir un reembolso de 20% de tu seguro, si tu auto tiene menos de un año de antigüedad.
We'll need more money to pay the lawyer's fees.
Necesitaremos más dinero para pagar los honorarios del abogado.
The development of the country is now dependent on foreign aid.
El desarrollo del país ahora depende de la ayuda extranjera.
We are a charity entirely funded by voluntary donations.
Somos una organización benéfica financiada enteramente con donaciones voluntarias.
The first prize is a €1,000 travel voucher.
El primer premio es un voucher de €1000 para viajes.
Shares fell sharply on the London Stock Market yesterday.
Las acciones cayeron abruptamente ayer en la mercado bursátil de Londres.
Sheila holds a 51% stake in the firm.
Sheila posee 51% de las acciones de la empresa.
Many investors swtiched out of shares into bonds yesterday.
Muchos inversores cambiaron acciones por bonos ayer.
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¿Cómo se dice esto en inglés?